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13 June 1942
War at Sea
German submarine U-157 sunk with all hands off Havana
A concerted attempt is made to resupply Malta - one convoy sails east from Gibraltar and a second convoy sails west from Alexandria
On June 13, 1942, a water main bursts in downtown Seattle, buckling pavement, flooding basements, and nearly causing several drownings. The burst occurs on 2nd Avenue, between Washington and Main streets. Some pedestrians are rescued after falling into the sinkhole that appears beneath their feet, but in the end no one is injured, just soaked.
That Saturday afternoon, the sidewalks were crowded with pedestrians, many of them shopping for various sundries on their day off. At 4:15 p.m., a 20-inch water main near the corner of 2nd Avenue and Washington Street shattered 5 feet below the surface, unleashing a flash flood which quickly undermined the street and sidewalk.
Seattle Post-Intelligencer photographer Jeb Beaudin happened to be walking nearby with his camera, and immediately began snapping photos of pedestrians and cars dodging around the buckling pavement. Suddenly, as a piece of concrete gave way, two men directly in front of him disappeared into eight feet of water.
Beaudin set aside his camera, and helped pluck the two fellows out of the hole. He then resumed his pictorial coverage. By this time, other would-be rescuers had themselves fallen into the drink and were in danger of being sucked into now-flooded basements nearby. Fortunately, the crowd pulled them all out.
The Flood Recedes
Police and water department workers arrived and quickly got everything under control. Otto's Meat Market and a nearby tavern were evacuated, and onlookers were moved away from the vicinity to prevent any injuries. After a few minutes of hasty work, the flow of water was stanched. The Fire Department arrived, and within a few hours much of the water was pumped out of nearby basements, leaving the street thick with mud and silt.
As repairs were being made, another break occurred around the corner, but with the streets clear and workers nearby, a similar disaster was averted. In the end, nearly 12 feet of water main was broken by the burst and was soon replaced, and the entire area repaved.
Broken water main swallows passersby in downtown Seattle, June 13, 1942
"Downtown Street Flooded by Bursting Water Main," Seattle Post-Intelligencer June 14, 1942, p.1, 17 "Breaking Main's Roaring Flood Damages Street," The Seattle Times June 14, 1942, p.1, 8.
HISTORY, June 13: Nazi saboteurs land in New York in 1942
Today is Wednesday, June 13, the 164th day of 2018. There are 201 days left in the year.
Today's Highlight in History:
On June 13, 1978, the movie musical "Grease," starring John Travolta and Olivia Newton-John, had its world premiere in New York.
In 1525, German theologian Martin Luther married former nun Katharina von Bora.
In 1789, during the French Revolution, the National Assembly convened.
In 1842, Queen Victoria became the first British monarch to ride on a train, traveling from Slough Railway Station to Paddington in 25 minutes.
In 1911, the ballet "Petrushka," with music by Igor Stravinsky and choreography by Michel Fokine, was first performed in Paris by the Ballets Russes, with Vaslav Nijinsky in the title role.
In 1927, aviation hero Charles Lindbergh was honored with a ticker-tape parade in New York City.
In 1935, James Braddock claimed the title of world heavyweight boxing champion from Max Baer in a 15-round fight in Queens, New York. "Becky Sharp," the first movie photographed in "three-strip" Technicolor, opened in New York.
In 1942, a four-man Nazi sabotage team arrived on Long Island, New York, three days before a second four-man team landed in Florida. (All eight men were arrested after two members of the first group defected.) President Franklin D. Roosevelt created the Office of Strategic Services and the Office of War Information.
In 1957, the Mayflower II, a replica of the ship that brought the Pilgrims to America in 1620, arrived at Plymouth, Massachusetts, after a nearly two-month journey from England.
In 1966, the Supreme Court ruled in Miranda v. Arizona that criminal suspects had to be informed of their constitutional right to consult with an attorney and to remain silent.
In 1977, James Earl Ray, the convicted assassin of civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr., was recaptured following his escape three days earlier from a Tennessee prison.
In 1983, the U.S. space probe Pioneer 10, launched in 1972, became the first spacecraft to leave the solar system as it crossed the orbit of Neptune.
In 1993, Canada's Progressive Conservative Party chose Defense Minister Kim Campbell to succeed Brian Mulroney (muhl-ROO'-nee) as prime minister she was the first woman to hold the post. Astronaut Donald K. "Deke" Slayton died in League City, Texas, at age 69.
Ten years ago: Tim Russert, moderator of NBC's "Meet the Press," died suddenly while preparing for his weekly broadcast he was 58. Pope Benedict XVI took President George W. Bush on a rare stroll through the lush grounds of the Vatican Gardens during the leaders' third visit together. R. Kelly was acquitted of all charges in his child pornography trial in Chicago, ending a six-year ordeal for the R&B superstar.
Five years ago: The White House said it had conclusive evidence that Syrian President Bashar Assad's regime had used chemical weapons against opposition forces seeking to overthrow the government. The U.S. Supreme Court unanimously threw out attempts to patent human genes, siding with advocates who said the multibillion-dollar biotechnology industry should not have exclusive control over genetic information found in the human body.
One year ago: A comatose Otto Warmbier (WARM'-beer), released by North Korea after more than 17 months in captivity, arrived in Cincinnati aboard a medevac flight the 22-year-old college student, who had suffered severe brain damage, died six days later. Two inmates got through a gate inside a Georgia prison bus, shot and killed two guards and fled in a carjacked vehicle the inmates were captured two days later in Tennessee. Rolling Stone magazine agreed to pay $1.65 million to settle a defamation lawsuit filed by a University of Virginia fraternity over a debunked story about a rape on campus. Anita Pallenberg, a model and actress who had children with Keith Richards and served as a muse for the Rolling Stones, died in Chichester, West Sussex, England.
Today's Birthdays: Actor Bob McGrath is 86. Artist Christo is 83. Magician Siegfried (Siegfried & Roy) is 79. Actor Malcolm McDowell is 75. Former U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon is 74. Singer Dennis Locorriere is 69. Actor Richard Thomas is 67. Actor Jonathan Hogan is 67. Actor Stellan Skarsgard is 67. Comedian Tim Allen is 65. North Carolina Gov. Roy Cooper is 61. Actress Ally Sheedy is 56. TV anchor Hannah Storm is 56. Rock musician Paul deLisle (deh-LYL') (Smash Mouth) is 55. Actress Lisa Vidal is 53. Singer David Gray is 50. Rhythm and blues singer Deniece Pearson (Five Star) is 50. Rock musician Soren Rasted (Aqua) is 49. Actor Jamie Walters is 49. Singer-musician Rivers Cuomo (Weezer) is 48. Country singer Susan Haynes is 46. Actor Steve-O is 44. Country singer Jason Michael Carroll is 40. Actor Ethan Embry is 40. Actor Chris Evans is 37. Actress Sarah Schaub is 35. Singer Raz B is 33. Actress Kat Dennings is 32. Actress Ashley Olsen is 32. Actress Mary-Kate Olsen is 32. DJ/producer Gesaffelstein is 31. Actor Aaron Taylor-Johnson is 28.
Thought for Today: "What intellectual snobs we have become! Virtue is now in the number of degrees you have — not in the kind of person you are or what you can accomplish in real-life situations." — Eda J. LeShan, American educator (1922-2002).
"I long to ride a bike, dance, whistle, look at the world, feel young and know that I'm free, and yet I can't let it show. Just imagine what would happen if all eight of us were to feel sorry for ourselves or walk around with the discontent clearly visible on our faces. Where would that get us?"
"I've asked myself again and again whether it wouldn't have been better if we hadn't gone into hiding if we were dead now and didn't have to go through this misery, especially so that the others could be spared the burden. But we all shrink from this thought. We still love life, we haven't yet forgotten the voice of nature, and we keep hoping, hoping for. everything."
How Anne Frank’s Diary Changed the World
Anne Frank was a German-Jewish teenager who was forced to go into hiding in Nazi-occupied Amsterdam, Holland during the Holocaust. Shortly after receiving a diary for her 13th birthday, the girl started recording entries on June 14, 1942, and she continued writing down her impressions while confined with her family and four other fugitives as they hid behind a bookcase in a concealed attic space in her father's office building.
The young girl's entries were made in the form of letters to several imaginary friends and she also employed pseudonyms to conceal the identities of her fellow fugitives and accomplices. Like many other normal teenagers, Anne agonized over her conflicted feelings about her family and a possible romantic interest, as well as her evolving thoughts about life. But her extraordinary depth and fine literary ability, combined with her optimism in the face of such adversity made her account a literary and historical treasure.
"It's a wonder I haven't abandoned all my ideals," she wrote shortly before her arrest,
they seem so absurd and impractical. Yet I cling to them because I still believe, in spite of everything, that people are truly good at heart… I see the world being slowly transformed into a wilderness, I hear the approaching thunder that, one day, will destroy us too, I feel the suffering of millions. And yet, when I look up at the sky, I somehow feel that everything will change for the better that this cruelty too shall end, that peace and tranquility will return once more.
Anne would end up spending two years and one month closeted in the hideaway, before the group was betrayed and sent off to concentration camps. Of the eight persons in hiding in the attic, only her father would survive. Anne succumbed to typhus in Belsen-Belsen in March 1945. She was just fifteen.
A family friend later retrieved the diary from the attic and presented it to Anne's father after the war. Upon reading it, Otto Frank persevered to get it published.
The diary first appeared in Amsterdam in 1947 and was subsequently published in the U.S. and the United Kingdom as Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl in 1952. Its immense popularity inspired award-winning stage and movie versions.
To date the book has sold more than 30 million copies in 67 languages. The original manuscript was bequeathed to the Netherlands Institute for War Documentation.
This article is excerpted from Scott Christianson's "100 Documents That Changed The World," available November 10.
100 Documents That Changed the World
A tour of the history of the world through the declarations, manifestos, and agreements from the Magna Carta and the Declaration of Independence to Wikileaks.
Ika-8 ng Hunyo | Ngayong araw na ito noong taong 1942, hinirang na Gobernador ng Militar ng Hapon sa Pilipinas si Shizuichi Tanaka.
Si Shizuichi Tanaka ay kumander ng Ika-14 na Hukbo ng Hukbong Imperyal ng Hapon o Imperial Japanese Army (IJA). Pinagpahinga ni Tanaka si Masaharu Homma bilang Gobernador-Heneral sa Pilipinas, at si Tanaka unang naging Gobernador ng Militar sa bansa.
Si Tanaka, isang tubong Hyōgo (prefektyur ng bansang Hapon sa rehiyon ng Kansai) ay nagtapos mula sa klase ng ika-19 ng IJA Academy at klase ika-28 ng Army Staff College. Pagkatapos ay nagpatuloy siyang kumuha ng isang digri sa panitikan sa Ingles sa Oxford University sa Inglatera kung saan pinag-aralan niya ang mga gawa ni William Shakespeare. Pinamunuan niya ang mga tropang Hapon doon sa parada ng tagumpay sa London sa pagtatapos ng Unang Digmaang Pandaigdig.
Mula 1930 hanggang 1932, siya ang kumander ng Ika-2 Rehimyento ng Impanterya ng IJA. Kasunod na naitalaga si Tanaka bilang isang hugpong ng militar sa Washington D.C., kung saan nakilala niya si Douglas MacArthur habang si MacArthur noong panahon na iyon ay Chief of Staff ng United States Army.
Bilang isang resulta ng kaniyang mahabang paglilingkod sa Estados Unidos at Reyno Unido (United Kingdom), at ang kaniyang lantarang makakanluraning damdamin, naipasa siya para sa mga promosyon habang militarisado ang Hapon. Mula 1934 hanggang 1935, si Tanaka ay naging Chief of Staff ng Ika-4 na Dibisyon ng IJA.
Sa pagsisimula ng Digmaang Sino-Hapones, siya ay itinalaga sa Ika-5 Brigada ng Impanterya ng IJA, gayundin sa Labanan sa Wuhan noong 1938. Siya ay pinabalik sa Hapon ilang sandali pagkatapos noon at hinirang na pinuno ng Kempeitai (militar na sandatahan ng pulisya ng IJA), sa rehiyon ng Kantō. Bumalik Tanaka sa Tsina bilang kumander ng Ika-13 Dibisyon ng IJA mula 1939-1940
Sa simula ng Digmaang Pasipiko, si Tanaka ang nagsilbing punong hukbo ng Eastern District Army, at kalauna'y naitalaga ng administratibong posisyon sa loob ng General Staff.
Noong Ika-28 ng Mayo, 1943. Si Tanaka ay pinagpahinga ni Shigenori Kuroda bilang Gobernador ng Militar ng Pilipinas nang maitalaga sa punong heneral.
Napilitang bumalik si Tanaka sa Hapon noong unang bahagi ng 1944 upang magpagaling sa sakit na malaria.
Si Tanaka ay pinarangalan bilang isang bayani sa kanyang tinubuang bayan sa insidente noong Ika-15 ng Agosto, 1945 kung saan napigilan niya ang isang paghihimagsik na pinlano ni Komandante Kenji Hatanaka at iba pa. Hinangad ni Hatanaka na sakupin ang Palasyo ng Imperyo, at pigilan na mai-brodkast ang anunsyo ng Emperador sa pagsuko ng Hapon sa Allied Forces.
Naramdaman ni Tanaka na siya responsable para sa pinsalang nagawa sa Tokyo (kanyang nasasakupan) sa pamamagitan ng pambobomba ng Allied. Tatlong beses siyang nagtangkang magbitiw sa tungkulin, matapos niyang hindi mapigilan ang pinsala sa Dambana ng Meiji, ang Palasyo ng Imperyo, at iba pang mahahalagang lugar, ngunit tinanggihan ang kaniyang pagbitiw. Pagkatapos ng digmaan, sinabi ni Tanaka sa kaniyang mga nasasakupan na sirain ang mga kulay ng yunit, ngunit huwag magpatiwakal Ang pagsunog sa mga bandila ng rehimen ay magiging sapat na kabayaran, aniya.
Noong Ika-24 ng Agosto, 1945, sa kaniyang tanggapan sa Dai-ingi Life Building sa Tokyo (kalauna'y naging Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers headquarters), binaril ni Tanaka ang kanyang sarili sa puso iniwan niya ang kanyang mesa na janatakpan ng mga suyra, mga sulat sa kanyang mga opisyal at kanyang pamilya, isang rebulto ni Emperorador Meiji at isang pergamimo na naglalaman ng mga salita ni Emperorador Hirohito sa kanya kaugnay ng insidente noong Ika-5 ng Agosto, 1945
Si Shizuichi Tanaka ay nagpakamatay sa ngalan ng lahat ng kaniyang mga tauhan.
On June 21, 1942, the Imperial Japanese Navy submarine I-25 shells the U.S. Army's Fort Stevens coastal defenses on the Oregon side of the mouth of the Columbia River. The Japanese are retaliating for the U.S. bombing of Japan the prior April. The U.S. batteries do not return fire and there is no serious damage.
The mouth of the Columbia River was defended by three Army forts: Fort Stevens on the Oregon side and Forts Canby and Columbia on the Washington side. In 1942, Coast Artillery and National Guard units manned heavy guns and mortars dating from the turn of the twentieth century. The weapons covering the beaches dated from World War I.
On April 18, 1942, 16 U.S. Army B-25 bombers attacked the Japanese home islands after being launched from the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Hornet. The Doolittle Raid, as it came to be known, had little tactical effect and all the planes were lost. The episode did cause Japanese military leaders to adjust their disposition of forces throughout the Pacific. A number of I-class, long-range submarines were dispatched across the Pacific to raid shipping and the U.S. and Canadian West Coast.
The Japanese high command dispatched submarines I-25 and I-26 to the Pacific Northwest to look for naval vessels headed to Alaska and the Aleutians. On June 20, 1942, I-26 shelled the lighthouse at Estevan Point on Vancouver Island, and I-25, under the command of Commander Meiji Tagami, torpedoed and shelled the freighter S.S. Fort Camosun off Cape Flattery. The freighter did not sink and she was towed to safety in Neah Bay.
On the evening of June 21, 1942, the I-25 used a screen of fishing boats to avoid minefields off the Columbia and took position off Fort Stevens. On the surface, the crew fired its 14 cm (5.5 inch) deck gun at the shore without taking aim. At the first shot, soldiers at the fort manned their guns and searchlights, and lookouts could see the sub firing. But the enemy ship was plotted (erroneously) to be out of the range, and the artillerymen never received permission to return fire. Also, the fort's commander did not want to give away the precise location of the defenses.
The I-25's shells fell harmlessly in the sand and scrub around Battery Russell, damaging only the baseball diamond backstop and a power line. One soldier cut his head rushing to his battle station. At about midnight, firing ceased and the sub departed to the west, then north. The Japanese crew fired 17 rounds, but witnesses ashore only counted between 9 and 14 shots. Some shells might have been duds or might have fallen into the sea.
I-25 attacked the U.S. again in September 1942 when it launched an aircraft that dropped incendiary bombs in the forests in southern Oregon. There was no conflagration as was hoped by the high command. I-25 then attacked and sank two ships off the Oregon coast, and torpedoed a Soviet submarine by mistake in the mid-Pacific.
U.S. destroyers sunk the I-25 in 1943. Several of her crew had been transferred and they survived the war to relate their stories.
The attack on Fort Stevens illustrated a flaw in U.S. coastal defense strategy. Despite the efforts of military engineers, enemies could always develop weapons with longer ranges than coastal guns. The I-25's small deck gun could outshoot the big rifles and mortars in the fort.
By January 1944, most Coast Artillery units had been disbanded. In 1975, the property became a unit of the Oregon State Parks system.
10" disappearing rifle at Fort Stevens, ca. 1942
Courtesy Friends of Old Fort Stevens
Soldiers and Japanese shell crater, Fort Stevens, Oregon, June 1942
Courtesy National Archives, (ARC 299678)
Fort Stevens State Park, 2004
Courtesy Oregon State Parks
Bert Webber, Retaliation: Japanese Attacks and Allied Countermeasures on the Pacific Coast in World War II (Corvallis: Oregon State University Press, 1975).
Note: This essay was corrected on November 7, 2011.
Paul McCartney is born
James Paul McCartney was born at Liverpool Walton Hospital. His mother Mary had previously worked there as a nurse in the maternity ward.He looked awful. I couldn’t get over it. Horrible. He had one eye open, and he just squawked all the time. They held him up and he looked like a piece of red meat. When I got home I cried, the first time for years and years.
But the next day, he looked more human. He turned out a lovely baby in the end.
In 1947 McCartney began attending Stockton Wood Road Primary school, before moving on to Joseph Williams Junior School. He passed his 11 Plus exam in 1953 and attained a place at the Liverpool Institute.
In 1954, while riding on the bus to the Institute, he met George Harrison, who lived nearby.
The following year the McCartneys moved to 20 Forthlin Road, now owned by the National Trust.
On 31 October 1956 Mary McCartney died of an embolism following a mastectomy. She had been suffering from breast cancer.
McCartney’s father Jim was a pianist and trumpet player who encouraged Paul and his brother Mike to become musical. He bought Paul a trumpet, which was swapped for a £15 Framus Zenith acoustic guitar when skiffle became a national craze.
13 June 1942 - History
US revenue stamps for the motor vehicle use tax were used from February 1942 through June 1946. During World War II, there were serious wartime shortages, including gasoline. The US government imposed the motor vehicle use tax to encourage people to use public transportation and to help pay for the war effort.
The new motor vehicle use tax stamps were gummed on the face, to enable them to be displayed on the inside of an automobile windshield. The back of each of the US revenue stamps had spaces for the automobile owner to enter the make, model, engine number, and license plate number of their vehicle, as shown in the image above.
At 42 Cents per month or Five Dollars per year, these US revenue stamps were a considerable expense for many Americans. At that time the national minimum wage was about Fifty Cents per hour.
The catalog detail tables below are sorted by the year and month of issue and the catalog number. These vehicle use tax stamps were valid for one year, beginning on July 1 of the current calendar year and ending on June 30, of the following calendar year. The denominations varied, depending on how many months before the end of the fiscal year they were purchased.
US revenue philatelists usually prefer to collect these stamps in mint condition, as used condition examples are often discolored and mutilated.
Motor vehicle use tax US revenue stamps were produced from February 1942 through June 1945. All of these tax stamps are offset printed, watermarked, and perforated 11. The central designs of the stamps feature the Liberty Bell. An example of each of the four issued colors is shown above.
The catalog details for stamps with gum on the back side are as follows:
- 2.09 D. (1942 FEB - Sc. #RV1) - Light Green.
The catalog details for stamps with gum on the front side and inscriptions on the back side are as follows:
- 1.67 D. (1942 MAR - Sc. #RV2) - Light Green.
- 1.25 D. (1942 APR - Sc. #RV3) - Light Green.
- 0.84 D. (1942 MAY - Sc. #RV4) - Light Green.
- 0.42 D. (1942 JUN - Sc. #RV5) - Light Green.
The catalog details for stamps with gum and a control number on the front side and inscriptions on the back side are as follows:
- 5.00 D. (1942 JUL - Sc. #RV6) - Rose Red.
- 4.59 D. (1942 AUG - Sc. #RV7) - Rose Red.
- 4.17 D. (1942 SEP - Sc. #RV8) - Rose Red.
- 3.75 D. (1942 OCT - Sc. #RV5) - Rose Red.
- 3.34 D. (1942 NOV - Sc. #RV10) - Rose Red.
- 2.92 D. (1942 DEC - Sc. #RV11) - Rose Red.
- 2.50 D. (1943 JAN - Sc. #RV12) - Rose Red.
- 2.09 D. (1943 FEB - Sc. #RV13) - Rose Red.
- 1.67 D. (1943 MAR - Sc. #RV14) - Rose Red.
- 1.25 D. (1943 APR - Sc. #RV15) - Rose Red.
- 0.84 D. (1943 MAY - Sc. #RV16) - Rose Red.
- 0.42 D. (1943 JUN - Sc. #RV17) - Rose Red.
- 5.00 D. (1943 JUL - Sc. #RV18) - Yellow.
- 4.59 D. (1943 AUG - Sc. #RV19) - Yellow.
- 4.17 D. (1943 SEP - Sc. #RV20) - Yellow.
- 3.75 D. (1943 OCT - Sc. #RV21) - Yellow.
- 3.34 D. (1943 NOV - Sc. #RV22) - Yellow.
- 2.92 D. (1943 DEC - Sc. #RV23) - Yellow.
- 2.50 D. (1944 JAN - Sc. #RV24) - Yellow.
- 2.09 D. (1944 FEB - Sc. #RV25) - Yellow.
- 1.67 D. (1944 MAR - Sc. #RV26) - Yellow.
- 1.25 D. (1944 APR - Sc. #RV27) - Yellow.
- 0.84 D. (1944 MAY - Sc. #RV28) - Yellow.
- 0.42 D. (1944 JUN - Sc. #RV29) - Yellow.
The catalog details for stamps with gum on the front side and inscriptions and control number on the back side are as follows:
- 5.00 D. (1944 JUL - Sc. #RV30) - Violet.
- 4.59 D. (1944 AUG - Sc. #RV31) - Violet.
- 4.17 D. (1944 SEP - Sc. #RV32) - Violet.
- 3.75 D. (1944 OCT - Sc. #RV33) - Violet.
- 3.34 D. (1944 NOV - Sc. #RV34) - Violet.
- 2.92 D. (1944 DEC - Sc. #RV35) - Violet.
- 2.50 D. (1945 JAN - Sc. #RV36) - Violet.
- 2.09 D. (1945 FEB - Sc. #RV37) - Violet.
- 1.67 D. (1945 MAR - Sc. #RV38) - Violet.
- 1.25 D. (1945 APR - Sc. #RV39) - Violet.
- 0.84 D. (1945 MAY - Sc. #RV40) - Violet.
- 0.42 D. (1945 JUN - Sc. #RV41) - Violet.
New, horizontal format, motor vehicle use tax US revenue stamps were produced from July 1945 through June 1946. All of these tax stamps are offset printed, watermarked, and perforated 11. They are gummed on the front side, and they have a control number and inscriptions on the back side. An example is shown above.
The vignette on each of these US revenue stamps features Daniel Manning (1831-1887) , the US Secretary of the Treasury from 1885 to 1887 .
The catalog details are as follows:
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D-Day Casualties: Total Axis and Allied Numbers
Allied figures for D-Day casualties are contradictory, and German figures will necessarily remain inexact. Historian Stephen Ambrose cites 4,900 Allied troops killed, missing, and wounded.
- The First U.S. Army, accounting for the first twenty-four hours in Normandy, tabulated 1,465 killed, 1,928 missing, and 6,603 wounded. The after-action report of U.S. VII Corps (ending 1 July) showed 22,119 casualties including 2,811 killed, 5,665 missing, 79 prisoners, and 13,564 wounded, including paratroopers.
- Canadian forces at Juno Beach sustained 946 casualties, of whom 335 were listed as killed.
- Surprisingly, no British figures were published, but Cornelius Ryan cites estimates of 2,500 to 3,000 killed, wounded, and missing, including 650 from the Sixth Airborne Division.
- German sources vary between four thousand and nine thousand D-Day casualties on 6 June—a range of 125 percent. Field Marshal Erwin Rommel’s report for all of June cited killed, wounded, and missing of some 250,000 men, including twenty-eight generals.
By early July the Allied armies had captured 41,000 German troops while sustaining 60,771 casualties, including 8,975 dead. French losses in the Normandy campaign have been calculated at fifteen thousand civilian dead.
The total number of casualties that occurred during Operation Overlord, from June 6 (the date of D-Day) to August 30 (when German forces retreated across the Seine) was over 425,000 Allied and German troops. This figure includes over 209,000 Allied casualties:
- Nearly 37,000 dead amongst the ground forces
- 16,714 deaths amongst the Allied air forces.
- Of the Allied casualties, 83,045 were from 21st Army Group (British, Canadian and Polish ground forces)
- 125,847 from the US ground forces.
The losses of the German forces during the Battle of Normandy can only be guested. Roughly 200,000 German troops were killed or wounded. The Allies also captured 200,000 prisoners of war (not included in the 425,000 total, above). During the fighting around the Falaise Pocket (August 1944) alone, the Germans suffered 90,000 losses, including prisoners.